Tuesday, February 19, 2008

Monday, February 18, 2008

Tuesday, February 5, 2008

Urdu Poetry

Urdu poetry is one of the most prominent & dominant poetry of times and has many different colors. It has generated its root from Arabic and mainly from Persian and is an important part of Indian culture. Urdu Poetry has two main types i.e. Ghazal and Nazm.

Like other languages, the history of Urdu Poetry does not have a firm starting point and shares origins and influences with other linguistic traditions within the Urdu-Hindi-Hindustani mix. Literary figures as far back as Kabir (1440 - 1518) and even Amir Khusro (1253-1325 AD) deserve mention as influences later Urdu poets draw on for inspiration as well as intellectual and linguistic sources. Meer, Dard, Ghalib, Iqbal and Faiz Ahmed Faiz are among the greatest poets of Urdu. The tradition is centered in the Indian subcontinent. Following the Partition of India in 1947, it found major poets and scholars residing primarily in modern Pakistan and India. Mushairas (or poetic expositions) are today held in almost every major metropolitan area in the world. Over this period, Urdu poets have produced a large number of primarily poetic works.

Wo Jo Hm Main Tum Main Qarar Tha

wo jo ham main tum main qaraar thaa tumhain yaad ho ke na yaad ho
vahi yaanii vaadaa nibaah kaa tumhain yaad ho ke na yaad ho

wo naye gile vo shikaayatain vo maze maze ki hikaayatain
wo har ek baat pe roothna tumhain yaad ho ke na yaad ho

koi baat aisi agar hui jo tumhaare jee ko buri lagi
to bayaan se pahale hi bhulanaa tumhain yaad ho ke na yaad ho

suno zikr hai kai saal kaa, koi vaada mujh se thaa aap kaa
wo nibaahane kaa to zikr kyaa, tumhain yaad ho ke na yaad ho

kabhi ham main tum main bhi chaah thi, kabhi ham se tum se bhi raah thi
kabhi ham bhi tum bhi the aashna, tumhain yaad ho ke na yaad ho

hue ittefaaq se gar baham, vo vafaa jataane ko dam-ba-dam
gilaa-e-malaamat-e-arqabaa, tumhain yaad ho ke na yaad ho

wo jo lutf mujh pe the beshtar, vo karam ke haath mere haath par
mujhe sab hain yaad zaraa zaraa, tumhain yaad no ki na yaad ho

kabhi baithe sab hain jo ru-ba-ru to ishaaraton hi se guftaguu
wo bayaan shauq ka baramala tumhain yaad ho ki na yaad ho

wo bigadana vasl ki raat kaa, vo na maanana kisi baat kaa
wo naheen naheen ki har aan adaa, tumhain yaad ho ki na yaad ho

jise aap ginte the aashnaa jise aap kahate the baavafaa
main vahi hoon “Momin”-e-mubtalaa tumhain yaad ho ke na yaad ho


Sunday, February 3, 2008


shahar kii raat aur main naashaad-o-naakaaraa phiruun
jagmagaati jaagati sadakon pe aavaaraa phirun
gair ki basti hai kab tak dar badar maraa phirun

ai Gam-e-dil kyaa karun ai vahashat-e-dil kyaa karun

jhilmilate qumqumon ki raah main zanjeer si
raat ke haathon main ki mohani tasvir si
mere seene par magar chalati hui shamashir si

ai Gam-e-dil kyaa karun ai vahashat-e-dil kya karun

ye rupahali chhaaon ye aakaash par taaron ka jaal
jaise suufi kaa tasavvur jaise aashiq kaa Khayaal
aah lekin kaun jaane kaun samajhe ji kaa haal

ai Gam-e-dil kyaa karun ai vahashat-e-dil kyaa karun

phir vo tootaa ik sitaaraa phir vo chhuutee phuljhadi
jaane kis ki god main aaye ye moti ki ladee
hook si seene main uthee chot see dil par padee

ai gam-e-dil kyaa karun ai vahashat-e-dil kyaa karun

raat hans hans kar ye kahatee hai ke maikhaane main chal
phir kisee shah_naaz-e-laalaarukh ke kaashaane main chal
ye naheen mumkin to phir ai dost veeraane main chal

ai Gam-e-dil kyaa karun ai vahashat-e-dil kyaa karun

har taraf bikharee hui rangeeniyaan raanaaiyaan
har qadam par isharate.n leti hui angadaiyan
badh rahi hai god phailaaye hue rusavaaiyan

ai Gam-e-dil kyaa karun ai vahashat-e-dil kyaa karun

raaste main ruk ke dam le lun meri aadat nahin
laut kar vaapas chala jaaun meri fitarat nahin
aur koi hamnava mil jaaye ye qismat nahin

ai Gam-e-dil kyaa karun ai vahashat-e-dil kyaa karun

muntazir hai ek tuufaan-e-balaa mere liye
ab bhi jaane kitane daravaaze hain vaa mere liye
par musibat hai meraa ahad-e-vafaa mere liye

ai Gam-e-dil kyaa karun ai vahashat-e-dil kyaa karun

ji main aataa hai ki ab ahad-e-vafaa bhi tod dun
un ko paa sakataa hun main ye aasaraa bhi chhod dun
haan munaasib hai ye zanjeer-e-havaa bhi tod dun

ai Gam-e-dil kyaa karun ai vahashat-e-dil kyaa karun

ik mahal kii aad se nikalaa vo peelaa maahtaab
jaise mullah kaa amamaa jaise baniye ki kitaab
jaise muflis ki javaani jaise bevaa kaa shabaab

ai Gam-e-dil kyaa karun ai vahashat-e-dil kyaa karun

dil me ek sholaa bhadak uthaa hai aakhir kyaa karun
meraa paimanaa chhalak uthaa hai aaKhir kyaa karun
zakhm seene kaa mahak uthaa hai aakhir kyaa karun

ai Gam-e-dil kyaa karun ai vahashat-e-dil kyaa karun

muflisi aur ye mazaahir hain nazar ke saamane
saikadon changez-o-naadir hain nazar ke saamane
saikadon sultaan jaabar hain nazar ke saamane

ai Gam-e-dil kyaa karun ai vahashat-e-dil kyaa karun

le ke ik changez ke haathon se khanjar tod doon
taaj par us ke damakataa hai jo patthar tod doon
koi tode yaa na tode main hi badhakar tod doon

ai Gam-e-dil kyaa karun ai vahashat-e-dil kyaa karun

badh ke is indar-sabhaa kaa saaz-o-saamaan phuunk doon
is kaa gulshan phoonk doon us kaa shabistan phoonk doon
takht-e-sultaan kyaa main saraa qasr-e-sultaan phoonk doon

ai Gam-e-dil kyaa karun ai vahashat-e-dil kyaa karun

jee main aata hai ye murdaa chaand-taare noch loon
is kinaare noch loon aur us kinaare noch loon
ek do kaa zikr kyaa saare ke saare noch loon

ai Gam-e-dil kyaa karun ai vahashat-e-dil kyaa karun


Friday, February 1, 2008

Josh Malihabadi

Josh Malihabadi was born as Shabbir Hasan Khan on 5th December, 1898 at Malihabad. He did his senior secondary from St. Peter's College, Agra in 1914. In 1918, he spent about six months at Shantiniketan. He studied Arabic and Persian. Due to the death of his father, Bashir Ahmed Khan, in 1916, Josh was unable to avail of a college education.

In 1925, Josh start working at Osmania University, supervising the translation work. He was exiled from state of Hyderabad for writing a nazm against Nizam. He then started the newsletter or magazine called 'Kaleem' in which he freely wrote articles in favour of independence and against the British rule. Soon, he was being called "shaayar-e-inquilaab". He got actively involved in the freedom struggle and became very close to quite a few of the political leaders of that era, specially Jawahar Lal Nehru.

On the advice of director W.Z.Ahmed, he also wrote ghazals for Shalimar Pictures. During this time, he stays in Pune. After independence, he became the editor of 'Aajkal'. He was later honoured with the honour of Padmabhushan. Josh spent the latter part of his life in Pakistan. He passed away on 22nd February, 1982 in Islamabad. Some of Josh's works are: Shola-o-Shabnam, Junoon-o-Hikmat, Fikr-o-Nishaat, Sunbal-o-Salaasal, Harf-o-Hikaayat, Sarod-o-Kharosh. His autobiography is titled "Yaadon ki Baarat".

In poetry, the ghazal (Persian: غزل; Turkish gazel) is a poetic form consisting of rhyming couplets and a refrain. Each line must share the same meter. The Arabic word "ghazal" is pronounced roughly like the English word "guzzle", but with a different first consonant, and literally means "speaking with women." A ghazal may be understood as a poetic expression of both the pain of loss or separation and the beauty of love in spite of that pain. The form is ancient, originating in 6th century pre-Islamic Arabic verse. It is derived from the Arabian panegyric qasiida. The structural requirements of the ghazal are similar in stringency to those of the Petrarcan sonnet. In its style and content it is a genre which has proved capable of an extraordinary variety of expression around its central themes of love and separation. It is one of the principal poetic forms the Indo-Perso-Arabic civilization offered to the eastern Islamic world.
The ghazal spread into South Asia in the 12th century under the influence of the new Islamic Sultanate courts and Sufi mystics. Exotic to the region, as is indicated by the very sounds of the name itself when properly pronounced as ġazal, with its very un-Indian initial voiced velar fricative g. Although the ghazal is most prominently a form of Urdu poetry, today, it is found in the poetry of many languages.
Ghazals were written by the Persian mystics and poets Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi (13th century) and Hafez (14th century), the Turkish poet Fuzuli (16th century), as well as Mirza Ghalib (1797–1869) and Muhammad Iqbal (1877–1938), who both wrote Ghazals in Persian and Urdu. Through the influence of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749–1832), the ghazal became very popular in Germany in the 19th century, and the form was used extensively by Friedrich Rückert (1788–1866) and August von Platen (1796–1835). The Kashmiri-American poet Agha Shahid Ali was a proponent of the form, both in English and in other languages; he edited a volume of "real ghazals in English."
In some modernized ghazals the poet's name is featured somewhere in the last verse.

The ghazal not only has a specific form, but traditionally deals with just one subject: Love. And not any kind of love, but specifically, an illicit, and unattainable love. The subcontinental ghazals have an influence of Islamic Mysticism and the subject of love can usually be interpreted for a higher being or for a mortal beloved. The love is always viewed as something that will complete a human being, and if attained will lift him or her into the ranks of the wise, or will bring satisfaction to the soul of the poet. Traditional ghazal love may or may not have an explicit element of sexual desire in it, and hence the love may be spiritual.
The Persian historian Ehsan Yar-Shater notes that "As a rule, the beloved is not a woman, but a young man. In the early centuries of Islam, the raids into Central Asia produced many young slaves. Slaves were also bought or received as gifts. They were made to serve as pages at court or in the households of the affluent, or as soldiers and body-guards. Young men, slaves or not, also, served wine at banquets and receptions, and the more gifted among them could play music and maintain a cultivated conversation. It was love toward young pages, soldiers, or novices in trades and professions which was the subject of lyrical introductions to panegyrics from the beginning of Persian poetry, and of the ghazal." (Yar-Shater, Ehsan. 1986. Persian Poetry in the Timurid and Safavid Periods, Cambridge History of Iran. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.973-974. 1986)
The ghazal is always written from the point of view of the unrequited lover, whose beloved is portrayed as unattainable. Most often either the beloved does not return the poet's love or returns it without sincerity, or else the societal circumstances do not allow it. The lover is aware and resigned to this fate but continues loving nonetheless; the lyrical impetus of the poem derives from this tension. Representations of the lover's powerlessness to resist his feelings often include lyrically exaggerated violence. The beloved's power to captivate the speaker may be represented in extended metaphors about the "arrows of his eyes", or by referring to the beloved as an assassin or a killer. Take for example the following couplets from Amir Khusro's Persian ghazal Nami danam chi manzil buud shab:

Nami-danam chi manzil buud shab jaay ki man buudam;
Baharsu raqs-e bismil buud shab jaay ki man buudam.
Pari paikar nigaar-e sarw qadde laala rukhsare;
Sarapa aafat-e dil buud shab jaay ki man buudam.

I wonder what was the place where I was last night,
All around me were half-slaughtered victims of love, tossing about in agony.
There was a nymph-like beloved with cypress-like form and tulip-like face,
Ruthlessly playing havoc with the hearts of the lovers.