In 1925, Josh start working at Osmania University, supervising the translation work. He was exiled from state of Hyderabad for writing a nazm against Nizam. He then started the newsletter or magazine called 'Kaleem' in which he freely wrote articles in favour of independence and against the British rule. Soon, he was being called "shaayar-e-inquilaab". He got actively involved in the freedom struggle and became very close to quite a few of the political leaders of that era, specially Jawahar Lal Nehru.
On the advice of director W.Z.Ahmed, he also wrote ghazals for Shalimar Pictures. During this time, he stays in Pune. After independence, he became the editor of 'Aajkal'. He was later honoured with the honour of Padmabhushan. Josh spent the latter part of his life in Pakistan. He passed away on 22nd February, 1982 in Islamabad. Some of Josh's works are: Shola-o-Shabnam, Junoon-o-Hikmat, Fikr-o-Nishaat, Sunbal-o-Salaasal, Harf-o-Hikaayat, Sarod-o-Kharosh. His autobiography is titled "Yaadon ki Baarat".