Saturday, December 6, 2008

Resham Me Lipta Hua

Resham me lipta hua,resham sa badan ho;
Makhhmal si aankhen, tum sheerin dehen ho!

Phoolon ne paya ho, shabaab tumhara;
Khushboo tumhari le aaya chaman ho!

Ijazat mile to makien, aankhon me rahun main;
Ye palken tumhari ab mera sehen ho!

Phir kesi ho tapti dhoop ghhamon ki;
Ye zulf ghaneri jo saya figan ho!

Band aankh, main dekhun chehra tumhara;
Tasawwur me dil ye kuchh aisa magan ho!

Mushkil me bhi ‘waseem’ phir sonche tumhi ko;
Tum ab bhi hamara mukammal zehen ho

Tuesday, October 21, 2008

Raat Bhi Neend Bhi Kahani Bhi

raat bhii niind bhii kahaanii bhii
haaye kyaa chiiz hai javaanii bhii

ek paiGaam-e-zi.ndaganii bhii
aashiqii marg-e-naagahaanii bhii

is adaa kaa terii javaab nahii.n
meharabanii bhii saragaraanii bhii

dil ko apane bhii Gam the duniyaa me.n
kuchh balaaye.N thii aasmaanii bhii

ma.nsab-e-dil Khushii luTaataa hai
Gam-e-pi.nhaa.N bhii paasabaanii bhii

dil ko sholo.n se karatii hai sairaab
zi.ndagii aag bhii hai paanii bhii

shaad-kaamo.n ko ye nahii.n taufiiq
dil-e-Gamagii.n kii shaadamaanii bhii

laakh husn-e-yaqii.n se ba.Dakar hai
in nigaaho.n kii badagumaanii bhii

ta.nganaa-e-dil-e-malaal me.n hai
behr-e-hastii kii bekaraanii bhii

ishq-e-naakaam kii hai parachhaa_ii
shaadamaanii bhii kaamaraanii bhii

dekh dil ke nigaar-Khaane me.n
zaKhm-e-pi.nhaa.N kii hai nishaanii bhii

Khalq kyaa-kyaa mujhe nahii.n kahatii
kuchh sunuu.N mai.n terii zabaanii bhii

aaye taariiKh-e-ishq me.n sau baar
maut ke daur-daramiyaanii bhii

apanii maasuumiyo.n ke parde me.n
ho ga_ii vo nazar sayaanii bhii

din ko suuraj-mukhii hai vo naugul
raat ko vo hai raat-raanii bhii

dil-e-badanaam tere baare me.n
log kahate hai.n ik kahaanii bhii

nazm karate ko_ii na_ii duniyaa
ki ye duniyaa hu_ii puraanii bhii

dil ko aadaab-e-ba.ndagii bhii na aaye
kar gaye log hukmaraanii bhii

jaur-e-kam-kam kaa shukriyaa bas hai
aap kii itanii meharabaanii bhii

dil me.n ik huuk bhii uThe ai dost
yaad aa_ii terii javaanii bhii

sar se paa tak sapurdagii kii adaa
ek andaaz-e-turkamaanii bhii

paas rahanaa kisii kaa raat kii raat
mehamaanii bhii mezabaanii bhii

jo na aks-e-jabiin-e-naaz ki hai
dil me.n ik nuur-e-kahakashaanii bhii

zindagii ain diid-e-yaar "Firaq"
zindagii hijr kii kahaanii bhii

Firak Gorakhpuri

Tuesday, August 5, 2008

Har Su Dikhai Dete Hain

har suu dikhaaii dete hain vo jalvaagar mujhe
kyaa-kyaa fareb detii hai merii nazar mujhe

aayaa na raas naalaa-e-dil kaa asar mujhe
ab tum mile to kuchh nahiin apanii Khabar mujhe

Daalaa hai beKhudii ne ajab raah par mujhe
aaNkhen hain aur kuchh nahiin aataa nazar mujhe

karanaa hai aaj hazrat-e-naaseh se saamanaa
mil jaaye do ghadii ko tumhaarii nazar mujhe

yak_saaN hai husn-o-ishq kii sarmastiyon kaa rang
un kii Khabar unhe.n hai na apanii Khabar mujhe

main duur huuN to ruuh-e-suKhan mujh se kis liye
tum paas ho to kyon nahiin aate nazar mujhe

dil leke meraa dete ho daaG-e-jigar mujhe
ye baat bhuulane kii nahii.n umr bhar mujhe


Jigar Moradabadi

Saturday, June 28, 2008

Kuchh Tujhko Hai Khabar

Kuchh tujhko hai khabar ham kya kya ai shorish-e-dauraan bhool gaye
Woh zulf-e-pareeshan bhool gaye, woh deedae-giryan bhool gaye

Ab gul se nazar milti nahin, ab dil ki kali khilti nahin
Ai fasl-e-bahaaran rukhsat ho hum to luft-e-bahaaran bhool gaye

Ai shauq-e-nazaara kya kahiye, nigahon mei koi surat hi nahin
Ai zauq-e-tasavvur kya kahiye hum to surat-e-jaanan hi bhool gaye

Sab ka madawa kar daala apna madawa kar na sake
Sab ke gireban see daale apna hi girebaan bhool gaye

Ab apni wafa ka yeh aalam, unki wafa ko kya kahiye
Ek nashtar-e-zeher aageen rakh kar sarhaane, rag-e-jaan bhool gaye

Tuesday, June 17, 2008

Patta Patta, Boota Boota

Patta patta, boota boota, haal hamaaraa jaane hai,
Jaane na jaane gul hi na jaane, baagh to saaraa jaane hai.

Aage us mutkabbar ke ham Khuda Khuda kiya karte hain,
Kab maujud Khuda ko woh maghrur khud-aara jaane hai.

Aashiq saa to saada koi aur na hoga dunya mein,
Ji ke zian ko ishq mein uske apna waara jaane hai.

Chaaraa gari beemari-e-dil ki rasm-e-shahr-e-husn nahin,
Warna dilbar-e-naadaan bhi is dard kaa chaara jaane hai.

Mehr-o-wafa-o-lutaf-o-inait, ek se waqif in mein nahin,
Aur to sab kuchh tanz-o-kanaya, ramz-o-ishara jaane hai.

Aashiq to murdah hai hamesha ji uthta hai dekhe use,
Yaar ke aa jaane ko yakaayak umr do baara jaane hai.

Mir Taqi Mir

Tashna-e-khun hai apna kitna, Mir bhi naadaan, talkhi-kash,
Damdaar aab-e-tegh ko uske aab-e-gawara jaane hai.

Faqiraana Aae Sadaa Kar Chale

Faqiraana aae sadaa kar chale,
Miyaan khush raho ham dua kar chale.

Jo tujh bin na jeene ko kahte the ham,
So is ahd ko ab wafa kar chale.

Koi naumidana karte nigah,
So tum ham se munh bhi chhipa kar chale.

Bahut aarzoo thi gali ki teri,
So yaan se lahu mein naha kar chale.

Dikhai diye yun ke bekhud kiya,
Hamen aap se bhi juda kar chale.

Jabin sijda karte hi karte gayi,
Haq-e-bandgi ham ada kar chale.

Prastash ki yaan taeen ke ai but tujhe,
Nazr mein sabhon ki Khuda kar chale.

Gayi umr dar band-e-fikr-e-ghazal,
So is fan ko aisa bara kar chale.

Kahen kya jo puchhe koi ham se Mir,
Jahaan mein tum ae the kya kar chale.

Mir Taqi Mir

Ibtada-e-Ishq Hai

Ibtadaae ishq hai rota hai kya,
Aage aage dekhiye hota hai kya.

Qafile mein subah ke ek shor hai,
Yaani ghaafil ham chale sota hai kya.

Sabz hoti hi nahin yeh sar zamin,
Tukhm-e-khwahish dil mein tu bota hai kya.

Yeh nishaan-e-ishq hain jaate nahin,
Daagh chhaati ke abas dhota hai kya.

Ghairat-e-Yousaf hai yeh waqt-e-aziz,
Mir isko raigaan khota hai kya.

Mir Taqi Mir

Mir Taqi Mir

Mir Taqi Mir was born at Agra in 1723. He spent his early childhood under the care and companionship of his father, whose constant emphasis on the importance of love and the value of continence and compassion in life went a long way in moulding the character of the poet, and this became the chief thematic strand of his poetry.

Mir is one of the immortals among Urdu poets. He is a perfect artist of the ghazal, which makes its peculiar appeal through compression, suggestion, imagery and musicality. He builds his poetry on the foundations of his personal experience. His favourite theme is love - love unfulfilled - and his favourite manner is conversational. Mir lived at a time when Urdu poetry was yet at a formative stage - its language was getting reformed and purged of native crudities, and its texture was being enriched with borrowings from Persian imagery and idiom. Aided by his aesthetic instincts, Mir struck a fine balance between the old and the new, the indigenous and the imported elements. Knowing that Urdu is essentially an Indian language, he retained the best in native Hindi speech and leavened it with a sprinkling of Persian diction and phraseology, so as to create a poetic language at once simple, natural and elegant, acceptable alike to the elite and the common folk. Consequently he has developed a style which has been the envy of all succeeding poets...

It is a commonplace of criticism that Mir is a poet of pathos and melancholy moods. His pathos, it should be remembered, is compounded of personal and public causes. His life was a long struggle against unfavourable circumstances...

Mir was a prolific writier. His complete works, Kulliaat, consist of 6 dewans, containing 13,585 couplets comprising all kinds of poetic forms: ghazal, masnavi, qasida, rubai, mustezaad, satire, etc.

... He died in Lucknow on 20 September 1810.

Thursday, June 12, 2008

Hazrat Ameer Khusro

Born at Delhi in 1253 AD, Amir Khusro served seven kings and three princes from the times of Sultan Balban to Mohammad Bin Tughlaq. His passion for his birthplace Delhi was ripped to the extent that when he was posted in Patiali, he not only lamented but completed a masanwi under the title ‘Shikayatnamah-e-Patiali’. Condemning Patiali and recalling the beauty and pleasure of his hometown Delhi, he compares himself with Joseph, who in separation from his home town Kan’an, feeling himself distressed, always pined for it.

Poetry was inherent in Ameer Khusro. The day he was born, his father took him to a God absorbed darwesh, who said to his father, "You have brought one who would go two steps a head of khaqani (nightingale)."
In his early childhood, Khusro had developed a putting together in verse form worse of discordant meaning. Up to the age of sixteen, whichever book of verse he happened to lay his hand on, he tried to follow its author in the art of composition.

His adolescence ushered him under the guidance of both Mufti Muizzudin Gharifi and Hazrat Nizamuddin Aulia, his mentor. Both of them guided him to the path of following the style of Saddi and Kamal Isfahani. Even at that young age, he used to lambaste his contemporaries, including Hasan Dehlavi in qitah (quatrains).

"My verses have so far been collected in three diwans, would you believe, that if there were a system of notation for registering musical compositions, my performance in the field of music too, would have been collected in three registers" He invented number of ragas and raginis which include such novelties as Qaul, Qulbanah, Taranah. He also composed verses in Persian and Hindwi.

On the one hand Sultan Aalauddin, for the sake of righteousness and expediency of empire, stamped out all kinds of intoxicants, the prohibited things, the wherewithals of disobedience, debauchery and wickedness with the use of chastisement and and on the other side Ameer Khusro opened wide the gate of discipleship and accepted all kinds of men as his murids, be they high or low, wealthy or impecunious, noble or faqir, learned or ignorant, high born or low born, urbane or rustic, soldier or warrior.

They all abstained from improper acts and if anyone would commit a sin, he would come and confess his guilt before Khusro and would indeed renew his discipleship. Men and women, young and old, merchants and ordinary men, slaves and servants and even young children began offering prayers regularly including the late morning prayers. Even the royal ameers, the armed acquirers, secretaries, clerks, sepoys and royal slaves, were particular about offering these supererogatory prayers. Owing to Khusro’s barakah (blessings), most people of the area including the high and low and irrespective of cast and creed became involved in prayers, tasawwuf (mysticism) and tark (renunciation) and turned to piety. During the last few years of Sultan Alauddin’s reign no person would talk of liquor, of beloveds, of debauchery and gambling, of obscenities and indecent life and no one would commit usury or usurp others’ rights.

Out of the teachings of Khusro, the shop people gave up lying and cheating and underweighing. Scholars visiting Khusro would talk of books on tasawwuf such as Fawaid-ul-Fuwad, Qut-ul-Qulub, Ihya-ul-Uloom, Kashif-ul-Mahjub, Awarif and Malfuzat of Hazrat Nizamuddin Aulia. People visited the bookshops in search of the books on suluk (deportment and self-control). Owing to the increased demand among the Sufis for lota (water vessel used specially for ritual cleansing) and tasht (basin for washing hands), the prices of these articles had slightly gone up showing that most people bent towards spiritual Sufi lifestyle.

Ameer Khusro served as an ambassador of Hindu-Muslim unity in his time. His Hindu or Hindwi poetry for which he has been so popular among the school-going children as well as elderly generation. In his introduction to Ghurra-ul-Kamal, Khusro writes, "A few poems that I have composed in Hindwi, I have made a gift of them to my friends. I am a Hindustani Turk. I compose verses in Hindwi with the fluency of running water."

It was he, who himself called Tuti-e-Hind’(parrot of India). ‘To speak the truth, I am an Indian Parrot. If you want to listen from me some subtle verses, ask me then to recite some of my Hindwi poems." He himself did not collect and preserve his Hindwi poems but made a gift of them to his friends. His poem, Kaliq Bari is a lexicon composed of synonymous words, from four languages, Arabic, Persian, Turkish and Hindwi.

Hazrat Ameer Khusro was a devout Muslim. He was a friend and disciple of Hazrat Nizamuddin Aulia. He was a profound expounder of ethics and strict observant of Sharia. Sharia acquires meaning when it maintains a close relation with reality partaking the essence of reality-love of God. If Sharia is lacking in that or in other words if it is without ain (the alphabet meaning the essence of God-love) it becomes shar (evil). Like Shah Waliullah of the subsequent year, his attitude towards the Sufis of hypocrisy was very critical.

Hazrat Ameer Khusro’s spiritualism, in fact, consisted in his philosophy of love, which he shared with all the Sufis. The depth of humanism in his poetry springs from that source of ‘Divine love’. He has composed as many as 99 works and four lac lyrics, which cover almost every aspect of life. He was a living legend. He was more of a qalandar (a free soul), though not less of a Sufi, Khusro’s humanism transcended all barriers of cast, colour and creed. In an autocratic age, when the king’s wilful actions were unrestricted, Khusro had the courage and the intrepidity to speak before the king, of the value of the equality of the man.

By Firoz Bakht Ahmed

Monday, June 2, 2008

Sir Jis Pay Na Jhuk Ja'ay

Sir jiss pay na jhuk ja'ay usay dar nahi kehtay
her dar pay jo jhuk ja'ay usay sir nahi kehtay

kiya tujh ko jahan walay sitamgar nahi kehtay
kehtay to hein laikin tere moun per nahi kehtay

kaabe mein her ik sajday ko kehtay hein ibadat
maikhane mein her jaam ko sagar nahi kehtay

kaabe mein musalman ko bhi keh daite hein kaafir
maikhane mein kafir ko bhi kafir nahi kehtay

apne dil e sadchaak ko see sakta hoon
mehroom e karam ho ke ji sakta hoon

mouqoof nahi jaam pay rindi meri
saqi tere ghussay ko bhi pe sakta hoon

mujh ko tasleem hai sharabi hoon
phir bhi fitrat ajeeb paaye hai

mein nazar say sharab peeta hoon
meri rindi bhi parsayi hai

fikr e sood o zayaan to chotay gi
minnat e een o aan to chootay gi

khair dozakh mein mai milay na milay
shaikh sahib say jaan to chootay gi

hum apni shaam ko jab nazr e jaam kartay hein
adab say hum ko sitaray salaam kartay hein

saja'ein kiyoon na isay yeh sara'ay hein dil ki
yahaan haseen musafir qayaam kartay hein

gale lagaatay hein dushman ko bhi suroor mein hum
bahut buray hein magar naik kaam kartay hein

woh jin ko daikh ke dil mein khuda ki yaad aa'ay
hum un butoon ka bara ihtaram kartay hein

hayaat baich day thoray say pyaar ke badlay
yeh kaarobaar bhi tere ghulaam kartay hein

hamein bus aik nazar say nawaaz ey saqi
hum apnay hosh o khirad tere naam kartay hein

qateel kitnay sukhan saaz hein wo sannatay
sukoot e shab mein jo hum say kalaam kartay hein

hum apni shaam ko jab nazr e jaam kartay hein...

--Qteel Shifai

Friday, March 7, 2008

Ibn-e-Safi - Work

Ibne Safi’s prose work can be classified into two categories:

  • Mystery novels
  • Short stories and articles of humor and mockery

Ibn-e-Safi started writing poetry in his childhood and soon earned critial acclaim. After completing his Bachelor of Arts, he started writing short stories, humor and satire under various names such as “Sanki Soldier” and “Tughral Farghan.” In the Nakhat magazines, he published several satirical articles which commented on various topics ranging from politics to literature to journalism. His early works in the 1940s included short stories, humor and satire.

According to one of his autobiographical essays, someone in a literary meeting claimed that Urdu literature had little scope for anything but sexual themes. To challenge this notion, Ibn-e-Safi began writing detective stories in January 1952 in the monthly Nikhat, naming the series Jasoosi Dunya. In the preface of Jasoosi Dunya's platinum jubilee number (Zameen Kay Baadal - Clouds of Earth), he mentioned those novels of Jasoosi Dunya whose main plot elements were taken from Western literature and which included Daler Mujrim (The Fearless Criminal), Pur-asraar Ajnabi (The Mysterious Stranger), Raqqasah ka Qatl (Murder of the Dancer), Heeray ki Kaan (The Diamond Mine) and Khooni Pathar (The Bloody Stone). He also mentioned some characters which were borrowed from English fiction, such as Khaufnak Hangamah’s (The Terrifying Chaos) Professor Durrani and Paharron ki Malikah’s (The Queen of Mountains) White Queen and Gorilla. He claimed that, other than those novels and characters, his stories were his own creation, and even the mentioned novels had only borrowed ideas and were not translations.

In 1955, Ibn-e-Safi started the Imran Series, which gained as much fame and success as Jasoosi Dunya. In the aforementioned essay, he claimed that all the characters and stories of the Imran Series were original and not borrowed. Ibne Safi’s novels – characterized by a blend of adventure, suspense, violence, romance and comedy – achieved massive popularity by a broad readership.

So strong was Ibne Safi’s impact on the Subcontinent’s literary scene that his novels were translated into several regional languages. It was not unusual for Safi's books to be sold at black market prices in Pakistan and India, where they were originally published every month.

The settings in Ibne Safi's novels are such that the reader is never told the national origin of the heroes. Since Jasoosi Duniya was created before the partition of the subcontinent, the names of the characters and their locales suggest that the novel takes place in India. The advent of the Imran Series came post-partition, and the reader is set up to assume that the narrative is situated in Pakistan. Besides their native countries, the main characters of both Jasoosi Duniya and Imran Series have had adventures around the world – Spain, Italy, England, Scotland, Pacific Islands, Zanzibar, South Africa, the United States of America, and various other places. Considering that Ibne Safi never left the Indian Subcontinent, the detailed descriptions he provides of the diverse localities are surprisingly accurate.

Many a time, Ibne Safi created fictitious settings for his stories. The magical web of his writing is so captivating that these fantasy lands have become real in the minds of readers. Avid fans of the author are experts on the people and cultures of Shakraal, Karaghaal, Maqlaaq, Zeroland, and many other imaginary domains. In cities around India and Pakistan, one can find discotheques, bars, night clubs, and hotels named after venues found in Ibne Safi's novels. Some places worth mentioning are: Dilkusha, Fizaro, Niagara, Tip Top, High Circle, etc.

Besides humor and satire he also wrote some short adventures, namely Baldraan Ki Malika (The Roots of the Man), Ab Tak Thee Kahaan? (Where had you been?), Shimal Ka Fitna (The Trouble from North), Gultarang, and Moaziz Khopri. In these adventures, Ibne Safi takes the reader to various fictitious lands similar to the ones created by H. Rider Haggard.

Ibn-e-Safi - Biography

Ibne Safi was born on July 26, 1928 in the town 'Nara' of district Allahabad, India. His father's name was Safiullah and mother's name was Naziran Bibi.

He received a Bachelor of Arts degree from Agra University. In 1948, he started his first job at 'Nikhat Publications' as an Editor in the poetry department.

His initial works date back to the early 1940s, when he wrote from India. After the partition of Indian and Pakistan in 1947, he began writing novels in the early 1950s while working as a secondary school teacher and continuing part-time studies. After completing the latter, having attracted official attention as being subversive in the independence and post-independence period, he migrated to Karachi, Pakistan in August 1952. He started his own company by the name 'Israr Publications'.

He married to Ume Salma Khatoon in 1953.

Between 1960 - 1963 he suffered an episode of schizophrenia, but recovered, and returned with a best-selling Imran Series novel, Dairrh Matwaalay (One and a half amused). In fact, he wrote 36 novels of 'Jasoosi Duniya' and 79 novels of 'Imran Series' after his recovery from schizophrenia. In the 1970s, he informally advised the Inter-Services Intelligence of Pakistan on methods of detection.

He died of pancreatic cancer on July 26, 1980 in Karachi, which was coincidentally his 52nd birthday.

Garmi-e-Hasarat-e-Nakaam Se Jal Jaate Hain

garmi-e-hasarat-e-nakaam se jal jaate hain
ham charagon ki tarah shaam se jal jaate hain


bach nikalate hain agar aatih-e-sayyad se ham
sholaa-e-aatish-e-gulafaam se jal jaate hain


Khudanumaai to nahin shevaa-e-arabaab-e-vafaa
jin ko jalanaa ho vo aaraaam se jal jaate hain


shamaa jis aag main jalatii hai numaaish ke liye
ham usii aag main gumanaam se jal jaate hain


jab bhii aataa hai meraa naam tere naam ke saath
jaane kyun log mere naam se jal jaate hain


rabtaa baaham pe hamain kyaa na nahenge dushman
aashanaa jab tere paigaam se jal jaataa hai

_Qteel Shifai

Tuesday, February 5, 2008

Urdu Poetry

Urdu poetry is one of the most prominent & dominant poetry of times and has many different colors. It has generated its root from Arabic and mainly from Persian and is an important part of Indian culture. Urdu Poetry has two main types i.e. Ghazal and Nazm.

Like other languages, the history of Urdu Poetry does not have a firm starting point and shares origins and influences with other linguistic traditions within the Urdu-Hindi-Hindustani mix. Literary figures as far back as Kabir (1440 - 1518) and even Amir Khusro (1253-1325 AD) deserve mention as influences later Urdu poets draw on for inspiration as well as intellectual and linguistic sources. Meer, Dard, Ghalib, Iqbal and Faiz Ahmed Faiz are among the greatest poets of Urdu. The tradition is centered in the Indian subcontinent. Following the Partition of India in 1947, it found major poets and scholars residing primarily in modern Pakistan and India. Mushairas (or poetic expositions) are today held in almost every major metropolitan area in the world. Over this period, Urdu poets have produced a large number of primarily poetic works.

Wo Jo Hm Main Tum Main Qarar Tha

wo jo ham main tum main qaraar thaa tumhain yaad ho ke na yaad ho
vahi yaanii vaadaa nibaah kaa tumhain yaad ho ke na yaad ho

wo naye gile vo shikaayatain vo maze maze ki hikaayatain
wo har ek baat pe roothna tumhain yaad ho ke na yaad ho

koi baat aisi agar hui jo tumhaare jee ko buri lagi
to bayaan se pahale hi bhulanaa tumhain yaad ho ke na yaad ho

suno zikr hai kai saal kaa, koi vaada mujh se thaa aap kaa
wo nibaahane kaa to zikr kyaa, tumhain yaad ho ke na yaad ho

kabhi ham main tum main bhi chaah thi, kabhi ham se tum se bhi raah thi
kabhi ham bhi tum bhi the aashna, tumhain yaad ho ke na yaad ho

hue ittefaaq se gar baham, vo vafaa jataane ko dam-ba-dam
gilaa-e-malaamat-e-arqabaa, tumhain yaad ho ke na yaad ho

wo jo lutf mujh pe the beshtar, vo karam ke haath mere haath par
mujhe sab hain yaad zaraa zaraa, tumhain yaad no ki na yaad ho

kabhi baithe sab hain jo ru-ba-ru to ishaaraton hi se guftaguu
wo bayaan shauq ka baramala tumhain yaad ho ki na yaad ho

wo bigadana vasl ki raat kaa, vo na maanana kisi baat kaa
wo naheen naheen ki har aan adaa, tumhain yaad ho ki na yaad ho

jise aap ginte the aashnaa jise aap kahate the baavafaa
main vahi hoon “Momin”-e-mubtalaa tumhain yaad ho ke na yaad ho

_Momin

Sunday, February 3, 2008

Aawara

shahar kii raat aur main naashaad-o-naakaaraa phiruun
jagmagaati jaagati sadakon pe aavaaraa phirun
gair ki basti hai kab tak dar badar maraa phirun

ai Gam-e-dil kyaa karun ai vahashat-e-dil kyaa karun

jhilmilate qumqumon ki raah main zanjeer si
raat ke haathon main ki mohani tasvir si
mere seene par magar chalati hui shamashir si

ai Gam-e-dil kyaa karun ai vahashat-e-dil kya karun

ye rupahali chhaaon ye aakaash par taaron ka jaal
jaise suufi kaa tasavvur jaise aashiq kaa Khayaal
aah lekin kaun jaane kaun samajhe ji kaa haal

ai Gam-e-dil kyaa karun ai vahashat-e-dil kyaa karun

phir vo tootaa ik sitaaraa phir vo chhuutee phuljhadi
jaane kis ki god main aaye ye moti ki ladee
hook si seene main uthee chot see dil par padee

ai gam-e-dil kyaa karun ai vahashat-e-dil kyaa karun

raat hans hans kar ye kahatee hai ke maikhaane main chal
phir kisee shah_naaz-e-laalaarukh ke kaashaane main chal
ye naheen mumkin to phir ai dost veeraane main chal

ai Gam-e-dil kyaa karun ai vahashat-e-dil kyaa karun

har taraf bikharee hui rangeeniyaan raanaaiyaan
har qadam par isharate.n leti hui angadaiyan
badh rahi hai god phailaaye hue rusavaaiyan

ai Gam-e-dil kyaa karun ai vahashat-e-dil kyaa karun

raaste main ruk ke dam le lun meri aadat nahin
laut kar vaapas chala jaaun meri fitarat nahin
aur koi hamnava mil jaaye ye qismat nahin

ai Gam-e-dil kyaa karun ai vahashat-e-dil kyaa karun

muntazir hai ek tuufaan-e-balaa mere liye
ab bhi jaane kitane daravaaze hain vaa mere liye
par musibat hai meraa ahad-e-vafaa mere liye

ai Gam-e-dil kyaa karun ai vahashat-e-dil kyaa karun

ji main aataa hai ki ab ahad-e-vafaa bhi tod dun
un ko paa sakataa hun main ye aasaraa bhi chhod dun
haan munaasib hai ye zanjeer-e-havaa bhi tod dun

ai Gam-e-dil kyaa karun ai vahashat-e-dil kyaa karun

ik mahal kii aad se nikalaa vo peelaa maahtaab
jaise mullah kaa amamaa jaise baniye ki kitaab
jaise muflis ki javaani jaise bevaa kaa shabaab

ai Gam-e-dil kyaa karun ai vahashat-e-dil kyaa karun

dil me ek sholaa bhadak uthaa hai aakhir kyaa karun
meraa paimanaa chhalak uthaa hai aaKhir kyaa karun
zakhm seene kaa mahak uthaa hai aakhir kyaa karun

ai Gam-e-dil kyaa karun ai vahashat-e-dil kyaa karun

muflisi aur ye mazaahir hain nazar ke saamane
saikadon changez-o-naadir hain nazar ke saamane
saikadon sultaan jaabar hain nazar ke saamane

ai Gam-e-dil kyaa karun ai vahashat-e-dil kyaa karun

le ke ik changez ke haathon se khanjar tod doon
taaj par us ke damakataa hai jo patthar tod doon
koi tode yaa na tode main hi badhakar tod doon

ai Gam-e-dil kyaa karun ai vahashat-e-dil kyaa karun

badh ke is indar-sabhaa kaa saaz-o-saamaan phuunk doon
is kaa gulshan phoonk doon us kaa shabistan phoonk doon
takht-e-sultaan kyaa main saraa qasr-e-sultaan phoonk doon

ai Gam-e-dil kyaa karun ai vahashat-e-dil kyaa karun

jee main aata hai ye murdaa chaand-taare noch loon
is kinaare noch loon aur us kinaare noch loon
ek do kaa zikr kyaa saare ke saare noch loon

ai Gam-e-dil kyaa karun ai vahashat-e-dil kyaa karun

_Majaz

Friday, February 1, 2008

Josh Malihabadi

Josh Malihabadi was born as Shabbir Hasan Khan on 5th December, 1898 at Malihabad. He did his senior secondary from St. Peter's College, Agra in 1914. In 1918, he spent about six months at Shantiniketan. He studied Arabic and Persian. Due to the death of his father, Bashir Ahmed Khan, in 1916, Josh was unable to avail of a college education.

In 1925, Josh start working at Osmania University, supervising the translation work. He was exiled from state of Hyderabad for writing a nazm against Nizam. He then started the newsletter or magazine called 'Kaleem' in which he freely wrote articles in favour of independence and against the British rule. Soon, he was being called "shaayar-e-inquilaab". He got actively involved in the freedom struggle and became very close to quite a few of the political leaders of that era, specially Jawahar Lal Nehru.

On the advice of director W.Z.Ahmed, he also wrote ghazals for Shalimar Pictures. During this time, he stays in Pune. After independence, he became the editor of 'Aajkal'. He was later honoured with the honour of Padmabhushan. Josh spent the latter part of his life in Pakistan. He passed away on 22nd February, 1982 in Islamabad. Some of Josh's works are: Shola-o-Shabnam, Junoon-o-Hikmat, Fikr-o-Nishaat, Sunbal-o-Salaasal, Harf-o-Hikaayat, Sarod-o-Kharosh. His autobiography is titled "Yaadon ki Baarat".

Friday, January 4, 2008

Jawab e Shikwa

Dil Se Jo Baat Nikalti Hai Asar Rakhti Hai
Par Nahi , Takat E Parwaaz Rakhti Hai

Peer E Gardu ( Khuda) Ne Kaha Sun Ke , Kahi Hai Koi
Boley Sayyarey ( Planets) Sarey Arsh E Bari ,Hai Koi
Chand Kehta Tha , Nahi , Aehle Zamee Hai Koi

Kuch Jo Samjha Mere Shikwey Ko To Rizwa ( Khuda) Samjha
Mujhe Jannat Se Nikala Hua Insaa Samjha

Aayi Awaz Gham Angez Hai Afsana Tera
Ashk E Betab Se Labrez Hai Afsana Tera
Aasma Geer Hua Nara E Mastana Tera
Kis Kadar Shokh Zaba Hai Dil E Deewana Tera

Shukr Shikwey Ko Kiya Husn E Ada Se Tuney
Hum Sukhan Kar Diya Bandey Ko Khuda Se Tuney

Hum To Mayal O Karam ( Dene Wala ) Hai ,
Koi Sawali Hi NahiRaah Dikhaye Kisey,
Reh Ravey Manzil Hi NahiTarbiyat Aam To Hai ,
Zohar E Kabil NahiJis Se Tameer Ho Aadam Ko Ye Wo Gil ( Mitti) Nahi

Koi Kabil Ho To Shane Kayi ( Badshahi Shan) Dete Hai
Dhoondney Waley Ko Duniya Bhi Nayi Dete Hai

Jisko Aata Nahi Duniya Mei Koi Fun, Tum Ho
Nahi Jis Kom Ko Parwa E Nasheman Tum Ho
Bijliya Jis Mei Ho Aasuda Wo Khirman Tum Ho
Bech Khate Hai Jo Aslab Ke Madfan( Buzurgo Ki Kabr) Tum Ho

Ho Niko Naam Jo Kabro Ki Tijarat Karke
Kya Na Bechogey Jo Mil Jaye Sanam Paththar Ke

Safha E Dehar Se Batil Ko Mitaya Kis Ne
No E Insaa Ko Gulami Se Churaya Kis Ne
Mere Kabey Ko Zabeeno Se Basaya Kis Ne
Mere Kur;Aan Ko Seene Se Lagaya Kis Ne

They To Wo Aaba Wo Tumharey Hi , Par Tum Kya Ho
Hath Per Hath Dharey Muntazir E Farda Ho

Munaffat Ek Hai Is Kom Ke Nuksaan Bhi Ek
Ek Hi Sab Ka Nabi, Deen Bhi Imaan Bhi Ek
Harm E Paak Bhi Alaah Bhi , Kur;Aan Bhi Ek
Kuch Badi Baat Thi , Hotey Jo Musalmaa Bhi Ek

Firka Bandi Hai Kahi Aur Kahi Zaatey Hai
Kya Zamaney Me Panapne Ki Yahi Batei Hai

Ja Ke Hotey Hai Masjid Me Saf E Aara To Gareeb
Zehmat E Roza Jo Kartey Hai Ganwara To Gareeb
Naam Leta Hai Koi Hamara To Gareeb
Parda Rakhta Hai Koi Tumhara To Gareeb

Um;Aara ( Ameer) Nasha E Dolat Mei Hai Gafil Hum Se
Zinda Hai Millatey Bezaa Gurba Ke Dam Se

Waa;Eez E Kom Ki Wo Pukhta Khayali Na Rahi
Bark E Tabai Na Rahi , Shola E Makali Na Rahi
Reh Gayi Rasme Azaa Rooh E Bilali Na Rahi
Falsafa Reh Gaya , Talkeen E Ghazali Na Rahi

Masjidey Marsiya Khuwa ( Sad) Hai Ki Namazi Na Rahe
Yani Wo Sahab E Ausaf E Hijazi ( Gentle Muslim) Na Rahe

Shor Hai Duniya Se Musalmaa Ho Gaye Nabood
Hum Ye Kehte Hai , They Bhi Kahi Musalmaa Mojood
Wajah Mei Tum Hi Nasari , To Tamaddun Mei Hunood
Ye Musalmaa Hai Jnhe Dekh Ke Sharmayae Yahood

Yu To Sayyed Bhi , Mirza Bhi Ho Afghan Bhi Ho
Tum Sab Kuch Ho Batao , Musalmaa Bhi Ho

Akal Hai Teri Sifar, Ishq Hai Shamsher Teri
Mere Darwesh E Khilafat Hai Jahangeer Teri
Ma Siwa Allah Ke Ley E Aag Hai Takbeer Teri
Tu Musalmaa Hai To Ye Taqdeer Teri

Ki Mohammad Se Wafa Tune To Hum Tere Hai
Ye Jaha Cheez Kya Hai Loh O Kalam Tere Hai

_Allama Iqbal

Shikva

Kyon Ziaan kaar banun, sood faramosh rahoon?
Fikr-e-farda na karun, mahw-e-ghum-e-dosh rahoon,

Naale bulbul ke sunoon, aur hama tan gosh rahoon,
Hamnawa main bhi koi gul hoon ke khamosh rahoon?

Jurrat aamoz meri taab-e-sakhun hai mujhko,
Shikwa Allah se khakam badahan hai mujhko.

Aye Khuda shikwa-e-arbab-e-wafa bhi sun le,
Khu gar-e-hamd se thoda sa gila bhi sun le.

Thi toh maujood azal se hi teri zaat-e-qadim,
Phool tha zeb-e-chaman, par na pareshan thi shamim;

Shart insaaf hai, aye, sahib-e-altaf-e-amim,
Boo-e-gul phailti kis tarah jo hoti na nasim?

Hum se pahle tha ajab tere jahan ka manzir,
Kahin masjood the patthar, kahin maabood shajar,

Khugar-e-paikar-e-mahsoos thi insaan ki nazar,
Maanta phir koi un-dekhe Khuda ko kyonkar?

Tujhko maaloom hai leta tha koi naam tera?
Quwwat-e-baazoo-e-Muslim ne kiya kaam tera!

Bas rahe the yahin salijuq bhi, toorani bhi,
Ahl-e-chin cheen mein, Iran mein sasaani bhi,

Isi maamoore mein aabad the Yunaani bhi,
Isi duniya mein Yahudi bhi the, Nusraani bhi,

Par tere naam pe talwar uthai kis ne,
Baat joh bigdi huyi thi woh banaayi kis ne?

The hameen ek tere maarka aaraaon mein!
Khushkion mein kabhi ladte, kabhi dariyaon mein,

Di azaanen kabhi Europe ke kaleesaaon mein,
Kabhi Africa ke tapte huye sahraaon mein.

Thi na kuchh teg zani apni hakumat ke liye,
Sar ba-kaf phirte the kya dahar mein daulat ke liye?

Qaum apni jo zar-o-maal-e-jahan par marti,
But faroshi ke iwaz but shikni kyon karti?

Naqsh tauheed ka har dil pe bithaya hum ne,
Zer-e-khanjar bhi yeh paigham sunaya hum ne.

Tu hi kah de ke ukhada dar-e-Khyber kis ne,
Shaher qaiser ka jo tha us ko kiya sar kis ne?

Tore makhluq khudawandon ke paikar kis ne?
Kaat kar rakh diye kaffaar ke lashkar kis ne?

Aa gaya ain ladaai mein agar waqt-e-namaz,
Qibla roo ho ke zamin bos hui qaum-e-Hejaz,

Ek hi saf mein khade ho gaye mahmud-o-Ayaz,
No koi banda raha aur no koi banda nawaz.

Banda-o-sahib-o-muhtaaj-o-ghani ek huye,
Teri sarkar mein pahunche toh sabhi ek huye.

Mehfil-e-kaun-o-makaan mein shar-o-shaam phire,
Mai-e-tauheed ko lekar sift-e-jam phire.

Dasht toh dasht hain, darya bhi na chhode hum ne,
Bahr-e-zulmaat mein dauda diye ghore hum ne.

Safah-e-dahar se baatil ko mitaya hum ne,
Nau-e-insaan ko ghulami se chhudaya hum ne,

Tere kaabe ko jabeenon se basaya hum ne,
Tere Qur'an ko seenon se lagaya hum ne.

Phir bhi hum se yeh gila hai, ke wafadar nahin,
Hum wafadar nahin, tu bhi toh dildar nahin!

Rahmaten hain teri aghiyar ke kashaanon par,
Barq girti hai toh bechare Musalmaanon par!

Yeh shikayat nahin, hain un ke khazane maamur,
Nahin mehfil mein jinhen baat bhi karne ka shaoor,

Qahar toh yeh hai ke kafir ko milen hoor-o-qasoor,
Aur bechaare Musalmaan ko faqt waada-e-hoor!

Taan-e-aghiyaar hai, ruswai hai, nadaari hai,
Kya tere naam pe marne ka iwaz khwari hai?

Hum toh jeete hain ke duniya mein tera naam rahe,
Kahin mumkin hai saqi na rahe, jaam rahe?

Teri mehfil bhi gayi, chahne wale bhi gaye,
Shab ki aahen bhi gayi, subah ke nale bhi gaye,

Dil tujhe de bhi gaye, apna sila le bhi gaye,
Aa ke baithe bhi na the, ke nikaale bhi gaye.

Aaye ushaaq, gaye waada-e-farda lekar,
Ab unhen dhoond chirag-e-rukh-e-zeba lekar!

Dard-e-Laila bhi wohi, Qais ka pahlu bhi wohi,
Nejd ke dasht-o-jabal mein ram-e-aahoo bhi wohi,

Ishq ka dil bhi wohi, husn ka jaadoo bhi wohi,
Ummat-e-Ahmed-e-Mursil bhi wohi, tu bhi wohi,

Phir yeh aazurdagi-e-ghair-sabab kya maani,
Apne shaidaaon pe yeh chashm-e-ghazab kya maani?

Ishq ki khair, woh pehli si ada bhi na sahi,
Jaada paimaai taslim-o-raza bhi na sahi,

Kabhi hum se, kabhi ghairon se shanasaai hai,
Baat kahne ki nahin, tu bhi toh harjaai hai.

Ahd-e-gul khatam hua, toot gaya saaz-e-chaman,
Ud gaye dalion se zamzama pardaaz-e-chaman.

Ek bulbul hai ke hai mahw-e-tarannum ab tak,
Us ke seene mein hai naghmon ka talatam ab tak.

Qumrian shaakh-e-sanober se gurezaan bhi hui,
Pattian phool ki jhad jhad ke pareshan bhi hui;

Woh purani ravishen bagh ki veeran bhi hui,
Daalian parahan-e-barg se uriaan bhi hui.

Qaid-e-mausim se tabiyat rahi aazad uski,
Kaash gulshan mein samjhta koi faryaad uski

Chaak is bulbul-e-tanha ki nawa se dil hon,
Jaagne wale isi baang-e-dara se dil hon.

Yaani phir zinda naye ahd-e-wafa se dil hon,
Phir isi bada-e-deereena ke pyaase dil hon.

Ajmi khum hai toh kya, ma'y toh Hejaazi hai meri,
Naghma Hindi hai toh kya, la'y toh Hejaazi hai meri.

Hai bajaa shaiwa-e-taslim meiN mashhoor haiN ham
Qissa-e-dard sunate haiN ke majboor haiN ham

Saaz-e-khamosh haiN, faryad se maamoor haiN ham
Naala aata hai agar lab pe, to maazoor haiN ham

_Allama Iqbaal

Wednesday, January 2, 2008

Ab Mere Paas Tum Aayee Ho

ab mere paas tum aayee ho to kya aayee ho
maine maana ke tum ik paikar-e-raanaee ho
chaman-e-daher mein rooh-e-chamanarayee ho
tallat-e-meher ho firdaus ki barnai ho
bint-e-mehtaab ho gardoo se utar aayee ho
mujhse milne mein abandesha-e-ruswaayee hai
maine khud apne kiye ki ye saza paayee hai

ab mere paas tum aayee ho to kya aayee ho

un dino mujpe qayamat ka junoon taari thaa
sar pe sarshaari-o-ishrat ka junoon taari thaa
maahpaaron se mohabbat ka junoon taari thaa
shehri yaaron se raqabat ka junoon taari thaa
bistar-e-makhmal-o-sanjaab thee duniya meri
ek rangeen-o-haseeN khwaab thee duniya meri

kya sunogi meri majrooh jawaani ki pukaar
meri fariyaad-e-jigar doz mera lala-e-zaar
shiddhat-e-kard mein doobi huyee meri guftaar
main ke khud apne mazak-e-tarabgee ka shikaar
wo gudaaz-e-dil-e-marhoom kahan se laaoon
ab mein wo zazba-e-masoom kahan se laaoon

ab mere pass tum aayee ho to kya aayee ho

_Majaz
agar na zohro-jabeenoN ke darmayaN guZre
to fir ye kaise kaTe zindagi kahaN guzre

muJhe ye waheM raha muddataoN ke zurrate saur
kahiN na khaatir-e-maasooM par gaRaaN guzre

khata muaaf zamaane se badguma hokar
teri wafa pe bhi kya kya hame' guma guzre

muJhe tha shiKwa-e-hiJraaN ke ye hua mehSooS
mere kareeb se hokar wo naagahaaN guzre

_Jigar

Alvida

ऐ मलिहाबाद के रंगीं गुलिस्तां अलविदा
अलविदा ऐ सरज़मीन-ए-सुबह-ए-खन्दां अलविदा
अलविदा ऐ किशवर-ए-शेर-ओ-शबिस्तां अलविदा
अलविदा ऐ जलवागाहे हुस्न-ए-जानां अलविदा

तेरे घर से एक ज़िन्दा लाश उठ जाने को है
आ गले मिल लें कि आवाज़-ए-जरस आने को है

ऐ मलीहाबाद के रंगीं गुलिस्तां अलविदा

हाय क्या क्या नेमतें मिली थीं मुझ को बेबहा
यह खामोशी यह खुले मैदान यह ठन्डी हवावाए,
यह जां बख्श गुस्तां हाए रंगीं फ़िज़ा
मर के भी इनको न भूलेगा दिल-ए-दर्द आशना
मस्त कोयल जब दकन की वादियों में गायेगी
यह सुबुक छांव बगूलों की बहुत याद आएगी

ऐ मलीहाबाद के रंगीं गुलिस्तां अलविदा

कल से कौन इस बाग़ को रंगीं बनाने आएगा
कौन फूलों की हंसी पर मुस्कुराने आएगा
कौन इस सब्ज़े को सोते से जगाने आएगा
कौन इन पौधों को सीने से लगाने आयेगा
कौन जागेगा क़मर के नाज़ उठाने के लिये
चांदनी रात को ज़ानों पर सुलाने के लिये

ऐ मलीहाबाद के रंगीं गुलिस्तां अलविदा

आम के बाग़ों में जब बरसात होगी पुरखरोश
मेरी फ़ुरक़त में लहू रोएगी चश्म-ए-मैफ़रोश
रस की बूंदें जब उडा देंगी गुलिस्तानों के होश
कुन्ज-ए-रंगीं में पुकारेंगी हवाएं ‘जोश जोश’
सुन के मेरा नाम मौसम ग़मज़दा हो जाएगा
एक महशर सा गुलिस्तां में बपा हो जाएगा

ऐ मलीहाबाद के रंगीं गुलिस्तां अलविदा

आ गले मिल लें खुदा हाफ़िज़ गुलिस्तान-ए-वतन
ऐ अमानीगंज के मैदान ऐ जान-ए-वतनअलविदा
ऐ लालाज़ार-ओ-सुम्बुलिस्तान-ए-वतनअस्सलाम
ऐ सोह्बत-ए-रंगीं-ए-यारान-ए-वतन
हश्र तक रहने न देना तुम दकन की खाक में
दफ़न करना अपने शायर को वतन की खाक में

ऐ मलीहाबाद के रंगीं गुलिस्तां अलविदा

_Josh Malihabadi
तस्कीन-ए-दिल-ए-महज़ू न हुई वो सई-ए-क़रम फ़रमा भी गये,
उस सई-ए-क़रम का क्या कहिये बहला भी गये तड़पा भी गये,

एक अर्ज़-ए-वफ़ा भी कर न सके कुछ कह न सके कुछ सुन न सके,
यहां हम ने ज़बां ही खोले थी वहां आंख झुकी शरमा भी गये,

आशुफ़्तगी-ए-वहशत की क़सम हैरत की क़सम हसरत की क़सम,
अब आप कहे कुछ या न कहे हम राज़-ए-तबस्सुम पा भी गये,

रूदाद-ए-ग़म-ए-उल्फ़त उन से हम क्या कहते क्योंकर कहते,
एक हर्फ़ न निकला होठों से और आंख में आंसू आ भी गये,

अरबाब-ए-जुनूं पे फ़ुर्कत में अब क्या कहिये क्या क्या गुज़रा,
आये थे सवाद-ए-उल्फ़त में कुछ खो भी गये कुछ पा भी गये,

ये रन्ग-ए-बहार-ए-आलम है क्या फ़िक़्र है तुझ को ऐ साक़ी,
महफ़िल तो तेरी सूनी न हुई कुछ उठ भी गये कुछ आ भी गये,

इस महफ़िल-ए-कैफ़-ओ-मस्ती में इस अन्जुमन-ए-इरफ़ानी में,
सब जाम-ब-कफ़ बैठे रहे हम पी भी गये छलका भी गये,

_Majaaz

In poetry, the ghazal (Persian: غزل; Turkish gazel) is a poetic form consisting of rhyming couplets and a refrain. Each line must share the same meter. The Arabic word "ghazal" is pronounced roughly like the English word "guzzle", but with a different first consonant, and literally means "speaking with women." A ghazal may be understood as a poetic expression of both the pain of loss or separation and the beauty of love in spite of that pain. The form is ancient, originating in 6th century pre-Islamic Arabic verse. It is derived from the Arabian panegyric qasiida. The structural requirements of the ghazal are similar in stringency to those of the Petrarcan sonnet. In its style and content it is a genre which has proved capable of an extraordinary variety of expression around its central themes of love and separation. It is one of the principal poetic forms the Indo-Perso-Arabic civilization offered to the eastern Islamic world.
The ghazal spread into South Asia in the 12th century under the influence of the new Islamic Sultanate courts and Sufi mystics. Exotic to the region, as is indicated by the very sounds of the name itself when properly pronounced as ġazal, with its very un-Indian initial voiced velar fricative g. Although the ghazal is most prominently a form of Urdu poetry, today, it is found in the poetry of many languages.
Ghazals were written by the Persian mystics and poets Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi (13th century) and Hafez (14th century), the Turkish poet Fuzuli (16th century), as well as Mirza Ghalib (1797–1869) and Muhammad Iqbal (1877–1938), who both wrote Ghazals in Persian and Urdu. Through the influence of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749–1832), the ghazal became very popular in Germany in the 19th century, and the form was used extensively by Friedrich Rückert (1788–1866) and August von Platen (1796–1835). The Kashmiri-American poet Agha Shahid Ali was a proponent of the form, both in English and in other languages; he edited a volume of "real ghazals in English."
In some modernized ghazals the poet's name is featured somewhere in the last verse.

The ghazal not only has a specific form, but traditionally deals with just one subject: Love. And not any kind of love, but specifically, an illicit, and unattainable love. The subcontinental ghazals have an influence of Islamic Mysticism and the subject of love can usually be interpreted for a higher being or for a mortal beloved. The love is always viewed as something that will complete a human being, and if attained will lift him or her into the ranks of the wise, or will bring satisfaction to the soul of the poet. Traditional ghazal love may or may not have an explicit element of sexual desire in it, and hence the love may be spiritual.
The Persian historian Ehsan Yar-Shater notes that "As a rule, the beloved is not a woman, but a young man. In the early centuries of Islam, the raids into Central Asia produced many young slaves. Slaves were also bought or received as gifts. They were made to serve as pages at court or in the households of the affluent, or as soldiers and body-guards. Young men, slaves or not, also, served wine at banquets and receptions, and the more gifted among them could play music and maintain a cultivated conversation. It was love toward young pages, soldiers, or novices in trades and professions which was the subject of lyrical introductions to panegyrics from the beginning of Persian poetry, and of the ghazal." (Yar-Shater, Ehsan. 1986. Persian Poetry in the Timurid and Safavid Periods, Cambridge History of Iran. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.973-974. 1986)
The ghazal is always written from the point of view of the unrequited lover, whose beloved is portrayed as unattainable. Most often either the beloved does not return the poet's love or returns it without sincerity, or else the societal circumstances do not allow it. The lover is aware and resigned to this fate but continues loving nonetheless; the lyrical impetus of the poem derives from this tension. Representations of the lover's powerlessness to resist his feelings often include lyrically exaggerated violence. The beloved's power to captivate the speaker may be represented in extended metaphors about the "arrows of his eyes", or by referring to the beloved as an assassin or a killer. Take for example the following couplets from Amir Khusro's Persian ghazal Nami danam chi manzil buud shab:


Nami-danam chi manzil buud shab jaay ki man buudam;
Baharsu raqs-e bismil buud shab jaay ki man buudam.
Pari paikar nigaar-e sarw qadde laala rukhsare;
Sarapa aafat-e dil buud shab jaay ki man buudam.


I wonder what was the place where I was last night,
All around me were half-slaughtered victims of love, tossing about in agony.
There was a nymph-like beloved with cypress-like form and tulip-like face,
Ruthlessly playing havoc with the hearts of the lovers.